In the game of stretching the rope, 4 athletes pull as hard as 5 non-athletes. Two non-athletes and an athlete pull as hard as a lion. The lion and three non-athletes now face 4 athletes. Who will win in the latter case? Solution The group of three non-athletes and the lion will win.
Burrhus Frederick Skinner, born in 1904, in Pennsylvania (USA). He recorded in the history of psychology one of the most famous experiments in reference to learning: the Skinner box experiment. To do this, he used an adapted box and pigeons. Skinner managed to explain a part of animal and human learning thanks to his experiment with animals.
Introversion is a personality trait that is characterized by focusing on internal feelings rather than external stimuli. Introverts and extroverts often see them as two opposite extremes, but the truth is that most people are somewhere in the middle of both.
Consciousness is defined as the part of the human psyche that works as the value system of the individual. We perceive mental anguish and feelings of guilt when we transgress it, and feelings of pleasure and well-being when our actions, thoughts and words are in conformity with our value systems.
In the 1880s a series of works are published that, by their meaning, are considered as the foundation of developmental psychology. The figures that will mark this period are the German Wilhelm Preyer, the Americans Stanley Hall and James Baldwin and the French Alfred Binet. From this moment on, a typical characteristic of developmental psychology is that it follows a parallel course to that of general or experimental psychology.
Self-referential phrases are those that define themselves. The simplest simply express the number of letters that form them and the most complex describe in more detail how many letters, vowels, consonants, syllables and words they contain. When these phrases use all the letters of the alphabet they are called self-referential pangrams.